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Glossary and Abbreviations

A

Accessibility Planning

According to the Social Exclusion Unit report, ‘Making the Connections’, accessibility planning aims to ensure that:

ACG

Annual Capital Guideline

Advantage West Midlands (AWM)

The Government's Regional Development Agency for the West Midlands Region, set up in April 1999 to promote regeneration and economic prosperity. Responsible for producing the Regional Economic Strategy in 2004.

Agenda 21

An agenda for the 21st century. This blueprint agreed by 150 nations at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro outlined a comprehensive programme of action throughout the world to achieve a sustainable pattern of development for the 21st century. The programme has been propagated at the local level through the Local Agenda 21 process.

Air Pollution Parameters

Pollutant emissions from vehicle exhausts, e.g. carbon monoxide (CO) or volatile organic compounds (VOCs), are measured in parts per million (ppm). Measurements under the Air Quality Regulations 1997 can be compared with World Health Organisation (WHO) parameters to determine whether the level of emissions is of concern to public health. Government standards are produced by the Expert Panel on Air Quality Standards. Days of poor air quality are the result of concentrated levels of pollution combined with high atmospheric pressure.

Annual Capital Guideline (ACG)

The Local Government and Housing Act, 1989 introduced a new system of controls on local authority capital expenditure as from 1 April 1990.  Under the Act, the Government issues local authorities with credit approvals which act as limits on the amount that authorities may borrow to finance capital expenditure.   Annual Capital Guidelines are issued for each local authority service and reflect the Government's view of the need for capital expenditure for that service. The total of the ACG's for each service is used to calculate an authority's Basic Credit Approval (BCA).   In addition, the Government issues certain Supplementary Credit Approvals (SCAs) to local authorities which are scheme specific.

Annual Progress Report (APR)

The APR sets out how a local authority is implementing its Local Transport Plan (LTP) and how it is progressing against its targets.

Area Regeneration Initiative

Comprehensive improvements based on a defined geographic area.

AST

Appraisal Summary Table.

ATM

Active Traffic Management.

ATOC

The Association of Train Operating Companies, a trade association with responsibility for operating certain arrangements which are common to some or all TOCs.

B

Beacon council

Award scheme that aims to highlight good practice in delivering local government services. Other councils are then encouraged to learn from the ‘beacons’.

Benchmarking

A method used by public sector organisations, charities and private companies for comparing  their performance against other organisations, typically of a similar size. The government encourages public sector bodies to compare their scores on various published performance indicators as way of improving public services. Many organisations are now members of so called 'benchmarking clubs' in which published and unpublished performance information are compared.

Best Value

From April 2000, local authorities and other ‘Best Value’ authorities have a statutory duty to provide Best Value to local people.  Best Value is defined as a duty to deliver services to clear standards (covering both cost and quality) by the most economic, efficient and effective means available. Councils must examine their services according to four guiding principles. They must challenge how, why and by whom a service is provided; compare its performance with that of other authorities; consult service users; and use competition to get the best service available.

Bite-sized Chunks

A number of options for the next stage of the development of the Midland Metro Light Rail Transit system after Line 1. The parameters were that each chunk should:

These options do not detract from the long-term aim of developing a Midland Metro network for the conurbation.

BCR

Benefit to cost ratio.

BIA

Birmingham International Airport.

BNRR (The M6 Toll)

Birmingham Northern Relief Road, a 27-mile tolled motorway operated by Midland Expressway Limited.

Brownfield site

Land which has previously been built upon, usually in an urban area, often contaminated. Under a government target, 60% of all new development should be on brownfield sites.

Bus boarders

Bus stops that protrude into the carriageway. They make passengers more visible to the bus driver, prevent other vehicles parking at and blocking bus stops, and allow buses to remain in the traffic lane and pull away more easily.

Bus Deregulation

The 1985 Transport Act changed the procedure for controlling local bus services by abolishing road service licences and replacing them with a system of registration. Bus services for which there is a commercial demand are provided by operators in open competition. Other services felt to be socially necessary have been introduced by operators via a tendering system supported by Centro.

Bus Showcase

A bus route incorporating all aspects of 'best practice' in local urban transport. A quality partnership between operators which provide:

Centro which contributes:

and Local Highway Authorities which provide:

See also Super Showcase.

Bus Strategy

See LTP Bus Strategy.

C

Cabinet

A way of running local authorities based on the Westminster model of cabinet government. Up to ten councillors are chosen to take on the day-to-day running of a local authority.   They are either appointed by a directly elected mayor or elected by fellow politicians. All but the smallest councils have a cabinet.

CAMPARIE

Campaigns for Awareness using Media and Publicity to Assess the Responses of Individuals.

CANS

Coventry Area Network Study.

Capital Challenge

A programme covering all areas of Local Government control (education, housing, transport etc.) whereby local authorities, in partnership with the private sector, compete for central government funds and approval to borrow to spend on capital projects.

CBI

Confederation of British Industry.

CCTV

Closed circuit television. A system of cameras sending pictures through to a control centre, usually for security purposes.

Central Trains

The train operating company which provides local and regional rail services in the West Midlands, under a franchise from the SRA

Centro

Centro is the corporate name of the West Midlands Passenger Transport Executive. It is a statutory body established under the Transport Act 1968 to provide public transport services within a designated area.  Under the revised functions of the Transport Act 1985, Centro is required to advise the Passenger Transport Authority (PTA) and assist in the formulation of policies in respect of securing appropriate public transport services for the West Midlands County.  Centro provides local rail services in accordance with Section 20 of the Transport Act 1968.

Centro's 20-Year Strategy

A document published in October 1999. It summarises standards and networks the Passenger Transport Authority proposes to pursue with its partners.

COI

Central Office of Information.

Community Economic Regeneration

An area of high unemployment defined under the area’s Single Programming Document, enabling European selective assistance.

Community strategy

Councils must draw up community strategies to improve the quality of life for local people. They must be completed with the help of businesses, voluntary groups and citizens.

Compulsory Purchase Order (CPO)

An Order made to enable an Authority to purchase land for an approved project, regardless of whether or not the owner wishes to sell. A CPO can also be conferred by Act of Parliament as in the case of Midland Metro.

Conservation Area

An area designated under Section 277 of the Town and Country Planning Act 1971 as being of architectural or historic interest, and where the character or appearance of the area should be preserved or enhanced.

Coventry Area Network Study (CANS)

A study commissioned by Coventry City Council in parallel with the West Midlands Area Multi-Modal Study. The study contained a comprehensive review of public transport demands and opportunities within the City and within the corridors linking to surrounding Shire areas.

CPO

See Compulsory Purchase Order.

Credit Approvals

Central Government permissions for individual local authorities to borrow or raise other forms of credit for capital purposes. There are two types of credit approvals:

Unlikely to have applied after April 2003 when a new financial regime was due to be introduced.

D

DEFRA

Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs.

DETR

The Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions.   A former government department responsible for environment, transport and regional policies which oversaw local government (superceded by DTLR, then by DfT and DEFRA).

De-trunking

The transfer of responsibility for certain trunk roads from the Highways Agency to local authority control.

DfT

Department for Transport.   A government department responsible for national transport issues and managing finance for local transport expenditure.

DIPTAC (Disabled Person's Transport Advisory Committee)

Set up under the Transport Act 1985, it is the Department for Transport's statutory advisor on transport matters affecting people with disabilities.

Discretionary element

For 2002/03, some 5% of transport funding was included within the amount allocated as the discretionary element of the SCP.  These allocations reflected an assessment of the quality of authorities’ capital strategies, asset management plans and their performance in the four services areas of Transport, Education, Housing and Social Services.  Authorities have clear discretion to use the 5% element as they consider appropriate.   However the Government expected authorities to make some use of the resources to assist in delivering their LTPs. It was expected that the discretionary element of the SCP would increase in future years.

DTLR

Department for Transport, Local Government and the Regions (superceded by DfT and DEFRA).

E

ERDF

see European Regional Development Fund.

ERP

Electronic Road Pricing.

EU

European Union.

European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)

This fund enables the European Union to give grants up to a maximum of 25% for projects in defined regions (Assisted Areas) of the United Kingdom.  Schemes most likely to attract aid are those which:

Expenditure Eligible for Transport Supplementary Grant (TSG)

TSG is payable for capital expenditure on highways and the regulation of traffic. The Secretary of State's principal objective is to ensure that the country has a modern transport system which provides for sustainable economic growth.  Funds are only allocated where authorities are able to demonstrate that their proposals represent the most practical, cost effective, and environmentally sensitive solutions.

F

Franchise Agreement

An agreement between a franchisee and the SRA under which the franchisee undertakes to secure the provision by a TOC of the passenger rail services to which the agreement relates throughout its term. The initial franchise agreements were mostly of seven years' duration.

G

GOMMMS

Guidance on Methodology for Multi-modal Studies issued by the Government in March 2000. This was used by the West Midlands Area Multi-modal Study (qv).

Government Action Zones

Areas of joint working between the Government and other bodies to address initiatives on deprivation and social inclusion.

Government Office for the West Midlands (GOWM)

Established in April 1994, it combines the former regional offices of the Departments of Transport, Environment, Employment, and Trade and Industry.

GO-WM or GOWM

see Government Office for the West Midlands.

GPS

Global Positioning System

Green Travel Plan

A Green Travel Plan, School Travel Plan or Workplace Travel Plan is implemented when a school, company or organisation wishes to reduce the dependence of students and / or staff on the private car and wants school, commuter or work related travel to be conducted by more sustainable transport modes. A plan is usually based on a comprehensive survey of existing pupil, staff and employee travel patterns. A number of incentives can be offered to reduce the need to travel and to encourage a shift in travel patterns to walking, cycling, the use of public transport and car sharing.

Greenfield site

Land where there has been no previous development. Developers prefer building on such sites because there is no cost of clearance or risk of contamination, but greenfield development is usually vehemently opposed by countryside campaigners.

GTP

Green Travel Plan.

H

HA

Highways Agency.

HAZ

Health Action Zone.

Health Action Zone

Partnerships between the NHS, local authorities, community groups and the voluntary and business sectors in areas of high deprivation, aimed at tackling health inequalities and poor health.

Heavy Goods Vehicle (HGV)

A vehicle constructed or adapted to haul or carry goods which results in a total weight exceeding 7.5 tonnes.

Heavy Rail

A term used for the conventional railway system to distinguish it from light rail or tram systems. The heavy rail system serves inter-urban and local needs and includes all services formerly operated by British Rail. It also includes heavy freight routes.

HGV

Heavy Goods Vehicle.

Highways Agency

Responsible for managing, on behalf of the Secretary of State for the Department for Transport (DfT) a safe, reliable, efficient and environmentally acceptable motorway and trunk road network throughout England.

HOV

High Occupancy Vehicle.

I

ICC

International Convention Centre.

Industrial Development Act 1982 (Section 13 Grants)

In both 'Development' and 'Intermediate Areas', schemes for the improvement of existing roads or the provision of new roads will be eligible for consideration for grant by the Department for Transport if they can be shown to provide any of the following:

Schemes attracting grant under the above Act are ineligible for Transport Supplementary Grant (TSG) but may be eligible for European Regional Development Fund aid.

INPHORMM

Information and Publicity Helping the Objective of Reducing Motorised Mobility.

Integrated Transport White Paper

The Government's Transport White Paper 'Transport - Better for Everyone' published in July 1998. Sets out policy on transport, was followed by 'daughter' papers on buses, sustainable transport and other specific topics.

INTEREG

European Programme for Community Initiatives.

ITWP

Integrated Transport White Paper 1998.

J

jdt (Joint Data Team)

A multi-disciplinary group that carries out the collection, processing, analysis and dissemination of data for planning and transportation purposes. It also, uses GIS presentations and analysis techniques. Based in Birmingham, it is largely funded by the seven metropolitan authorities in the West Midlands, although an increasing proportion of its work is commissioned from the private sector.

K

'Kassel' kerbs

A raised section of kerb at a bus stop to facilitate easy access to the bus, especially for the mobility impaired.

L

Light Rail Transit or Light Rapid Transit (LRT)

A rail-based form of public transport (otherwise referred to as tramways) that can carry up to 35,000 passengers per hour per direction. The term 'light' refers to the design and weight of the vehicle compared with normal railway rolling stock. The vehicle is usually electrically powered, and can run up steep gradients, round tight corners and mix with road traffic.

Local strategic partnership (LSP)

Initiative to ensure cooperation between public agencies, voluntary groups and businesses in the regeneration of deprived neighbourhoods.

Local Transport Plan (LTP)

LTPs are five-year transport plans covering all forms of local transport. They include five-year programmes of schemes to deliver the plan objectives. Local authorities and Public Transport Authorities submit LTPs to Government for funding approval.

LRT

see Light Rail Transit or Light Rapid Transit.

LTP

see Local Transport Plan.

LTP Bus Strategy

The Transport Act 2000 requires Public Transport Authorities and local authorities to consult on and produce a Bus Strategy for their areas. The West Midlands has a five-year strategy to increase bus usage through the delivery of improved local bus networks and an integrated bus, rail and Metro network branded 'Network West Midlands'.

M

Maintenance, Assessment, Rating and Costing for Highways (MARCH) System

A system for assessing the condition of highways, enabling the maintenance budget to be allocated to the areas of greatest need.

Major Schemes

Those capital projects which are estimated to cost £5 million or more in total.

MATTISSE - Midlands Advanced Transport Telematics Information Services and Strategies in Europe

A developing system that provides real-time, multi-modal travel information for the Midlands. Building on the successful QUARTET Plus European demonstration project, electronically produced travel information is gathered from a variety of sources into a coherent package for dissemination.   This allows transport operators to manage their network more efficiently and citizens to make informed decisions about their choice of travel.   The system operates over the internet and exchanges event and incident  information between the MATTISSE local authority partners, transport operators and the media.  The information is used by radio travel news, the Highways Agency, Police and the public via the web site http://www.help2travel.co.uk.

MIDAS

Motorway Incident Detection and Automatic Signalling.

Minor Works

Schemes which are estimated to cost less than £5M in total.

Mobility Audit

The examination and assessment of how routes perform for their purpose. Carried out by detailed survey using the appropriate mode(s).

Multi-modal studies

Reviews of all modes of transport in an area, which identify the main transport problems and propose future solutions. A programme of such reviews which focuses mainly on road, rail and bus systems, was launched in 1999. The reviews are being considered by Regional Planning Conferences.

N

NATA

New Approach to Appraisal (qv).

National Cycle Network (NCN)

A national 6,500 mile, linked network of off- and on-road cycle routes that is currently under construction. The NCN was awarded National Millennium project status by the Millennium Commission.  Sustrans, the co-ordinator, was awarded £42.5 million by the Commission to part-fund the implementation of the NCN.

National Road Maintenance Condition Survey

An annual sample survey of road conditions published to guide authorities on their relative condition compared to a base year (1977).

NEC

National Exhibition Centre.

Neighbourhood Renewal Fund

Provided 88 of the most deprived council areas in the country with a combined total of £900M over three years from 2001-02. Aimed at kick-starting regeneration initiatives.

Network Rail

This non-profit making company replaced Railtrack in October 2002. Network Rail owns the track and railway infrastructure and is responsible for the operation and maintenance of track, signalling and stations. It charges rail operators for using the rail system, and leases out other infrastructure, such as land and sidings, to freight and passenger train operating companies.

New Approach to Appraisal (NATA)

Guidance issued by the former DETR on appraising transport schemes. This was introduced in the government’s White Paper ‘A New Deal for Transport’ and was published alongside the Review of Trunk Road policy in July 1998.

New Deal for Communities

Government initiative to tackle deprivation by providing intensive financial and other support to run-down parts of the country. Aimed at tackling poor job prospects, crime, educational under-achievement, poor health and poor housing and physical environment. Nearly £2,000 million has been committed to the scheme.

NMS

Network Management System.

Noise Pollution Parameters

Measurements of noise levels in decibels as perceived by human beings. Usually in terms of LA10 or similar terms - representing attenuated levels over periods of time.

NPV

Net Present Value – a way of measuring benefits of a scheme.

NRTF

National Road Traffic Forecasts.

O

Objective 2 Status

The West Midlands was granted the above status in 1984 under European regional policy review. This status has the effect of allowing selective financial assistance for projects that enhance or protect employment opportunities and European structural funds. European Regional Development Fund grant and industrial Development Act 1982 funding is available to support designated schemes.

Out-Turn Price

The actual cash price paid for goods or services at time of payment.

P

P&R

Park and Ride

Passenger Transport Authority (PTA)

A body comprised of elected representatives from district councils whose duties include the formulation of policies for the provision and promotion of public passenger transport facilities within its administrative area. Its policies are executed by the Passenger Transport Executive, which in the West Midlands is Centro.

PFI

Private Finance Initiative.

PPF

Private Partnership Funding.

PPG 6

Government policy as laid down in Planning Policy Guidance Note No. 6, 'Town Centres and Retail Developments', advises that new retail development should be sited in or next to existing centres. This would enable multi-purpose trips to be made by public transport or by only one car journey, thus minimising car use and fuel consumption.

PPG 11

Government policy set out in Planning Policy Guidance Note 11 deals with regional planning including the production of regional Transport Strategies.

PPG 13

Government policy as laid down in Planning Policy Guidance Note No. 13 emphasise the relationship between land use and transport planning. It encourages local authorities to carry out their land use policies and transport programmes in ways which help to:

Primary Route Network (PRN)

A network of all purpose roads which complement the trunk road network. The Highways Agency defines a series of routes which are distinctively signed (green background signs) and are intended to guide drivers along the most suitable routes between places of major traffic importance (primary destinations). They are the most important of the non-trunk 'A' class roads and the local authority is principally responsible for maintenance.

Principal Roads

A network of all-purpose roads which complement the trunk road network. They are the 'A' class roads where the local authority is responsible for maintenance.

PRISM (Policy Responsive Integrated Strategy Model)

Strategic transport model for the West Midlands metropolitan area which is being developed and is to be available in 2004.

Private Finance Initiative (PFI)

See Private Partnership Funding

Private Partnership Funding (PPF)

The Private Finance Initiative was launched in 1992, underwent a detailed review in April 1995 and was renamed Private Partnership Funding in 1997. The aim of PPF is to provide a mechanism through which the public sector can secure improved value for money in partnership with the private sector. In effect the public sector procures the provision of fully serviced, maintained, repaired and renewed accommodation, road, bridges and equipment etc. for an agreed period and the private sector bidder provides the services through the creation of a capital project in accordance with an agreed output specification.

Public Service Agreement (PSA)

A Public Service Agreement is an agreement between an individual local authority and the Government. It sets out the authority's commitment to deliver specific improvements in performance and the Government's commitment to reward these improvements. The agreement also records what the Government will do to help the authority achieve the improved performance.

PVC

Present Value of Cost

Q

Quality Partnerships

A voluntary agreement between operators, local authorities and other organisations set up to deliver improved quality in services.

R

Office of Rail Regulation

Responsible for regulating the privatised railways. Has issued guidance on licensing passenger, non-passenger, station, and light maintenance depot operators, on railway operations and the environment, the provisions for through ticketing, and access charges.

Railtrack

A privatised part of British Rail that owned the track and railway infrastructure and was replaced by the non-profit making company Network Rail in October 2002.

Railways Act 1974 (Section 8) Grants

Grants to companies who want to construct a railway siding or facility in order that goods can be carried by trains rather than by lorries.

RDA

Regional Development Agency

RDS

Radio Data System

Real Time Information (RTI)

An electronically based system of passenger information provision. At stops or stations, displays provide up-to-the-minute information on the public transport services that use the stop or station. In Coventry, RTI is being used along Bus Showcase routes.

Red Routes

Red Routes improve the efficiency of the main roads by a regime of improvements and controls. These include:

This flexibility in the Red Route concept provides the ability to strike required balances by picking the appropriate measures from the Red Route ‘menu’ of measures to resolve local problems and issues.

Regional assembly /chamber

A body consisting of councillors and representatives from the private and voluntary sectors. England's eight regional chambers and assemblies were set up in 1999 to scrutinise the work of the country's eight regional development agencies.

Regional Development Agency (RDA)

The government has set up development agencies in the eight English regions and London to promote economic growth and regeneration. The RDAs outside the capital were established in 1999 and have progressively gained more funding and freedom from ministers.

RER

Regional Express Rail

Revenue Support Grant (RSG)

This is the most important of the Government's grants to local authorities. It ensures that part of their costs are met from general taxation rather than all being borne by the council tax payer.

RIF

Roads Information Framework

RILS

Regional Industrial Land Survey

Ring and Ride

This is a dial-a-ride, door-to-door transport service for those unable to use or reach mainstream public transport. The service covers the West Midlands County and is almost wholly funded by Centro.

Road Safety Plan

A document produced by Highway Authorities to:

Road Traffic Reduction Act

Government legislation requiring authorities to plan to reduce future traffic levels by taking appropriate measures.

Routes of More than Local Importance

Transport Supplementary Grant is currently payable in respect of accepted expenditure on improvements to the Primary Route Network and to other routes of more than local importance.

RPB

Regional Planning Body

RPG

Regional Planning Guidance.

RPP

Rail Passenger Partnership.

RSG

Revenue Support Grant.

RTA

Regional Transport Authority

RTI

Real Time Information.

RZ

Regeneration Zone

S

S106 (Town and Country Planning Act 1990)

Section 106 permits agreement between local authorities and developers where ‘planning’ gain may be obtained linked to the granting of planning permission. Planning gain is the provision by a developer of resources for the benefit of the community.

SACTRA

Standing Committee on Trunk Road Assessment

Safer Routes to School

A travel awareness campaign that encourages parents who normally drive children to school to allow them to walk, cycle or use public transport instead. The aim is to reduce road congestion at peak times, reduce danger to pupils on their way to school, and develop road sense in children that they may currently be lacking.

SALSA

Sustainable Access to Leisure Sites and Amenities

SCOOT (Split Cycle Offset Optimisation Technique)

A traffic signal control system that detects vehicles as they pass through signalled junctions in an Urban Traffic Control area and sets appropriate signal timings, minute by minute, to maximise vehicle throughput on a particular route.

Scrutiny Committee

Group of councillors that reviews and investigates local authority services and other issues, monitors the work of a mayor or cabinet and holds members of the executive to account for their decisions. Introduced by the Local Government Act 2000.

Selected Vehicle Detection (SVD)

A system of electronically detecting vehicles through 'tags' or similar devices to give priority through altering the setting of traffic signals.

SHN

Strategic Highway Network

Single Capital Pot (SCP):

From 2002/03 funding for maintenance and integrated transport block has been made as part of the Single Capital Pot. SCP is awarded as a single ACG to each authority covering the four services of Transport, Education, Housing and Social Services. Authorities have discretion to spend this funding according to their own plans and priorities but are expected to work towards and ultimately meet the objectives and targets contained in their LTPs.

Discretionary element: For 2002/03 5% of transport funding has been included within the amount being allocated as the discretionary element of the SCP. These allocations reflect an assessment of the quality of authorities’ capital strategies, asset management plans and their performance in the four services areas of Transport, Education, Housing and Social Services. Again authorities have clear discretion to use the 5% element as they consider appropriate however Department of Environment, Local Government and the Regions expect authorities to make some use of the resources to assist in delivering their LTPs. It is expected that the discretionary element of the SCP will increase in future years.

Single Regeneration Budget (SRB)

The opening of the Government Offices for the Regions in April 1994, bringing together the regional offices of the Departments dealing with transport, environment, employment, and trade and industry, also heralded the start of the Government's major new urban policy - the Single Regeneration Budget (SRB). The SRB brings together about 20 existing programmes for regeneration and economic development and seeks to encourage joint approaches to regeneration through new local public and private sector partnerships. The SRB initiative also supports Urban Development Corporations, English Partnerships, City Challenge, Estate Action and Housing Action Trusts, TEC Challenge and Regional Enterprise Grants.

Smart Cards

Similar to a credit card, a smart card can store and process computer data. Its transport applications are wide and in Coventry a smart card scheme is being piloted for bus ticketing.

SME

Small and Medium Sized Enterprises.

Social exclusion

This term is used to describe people or areas that suffer from a combination of factors that include unemployment, high crime, low incomes and poor housing. The government's approach to regeneration is based on tackling the problems posed by social exclusion as a whole, rather than simply focusing on its individual elements.

Social exclusion unit (SEU)

Set up by the prime minister in December 1997 to help reduce social exclusion by producing "joined up solutions to joined up problems". The SEU works with government departments to research, implement and promote policies that tackle social exclusion and poverty.

SRA

Strategic Rail Authority

SRB

Single Regeneration Budget

SSA

Standard Spending Assessment

SSSI

Site of Special Scientific Interest

Standard Spending Assessment (SSA)

The amount of revenue expenditure, net of specific grants, which in the Government's opinion, it is appropriate for each authority to incur in providing a common level of service.

Statutory Undertakers

Bodies responsible for distributions services such as gas, water, electricity, telephone, cable communications which have a right to use the highway.

STM

Strategic Transport Model

STP

School Travel Plan

Strategic Highway Network

The network consists of all motorways and trunk roads and primary routes (the long distance green-backed signed network connecting primary destinations) and selected principal roads (‘A’ roads) linking to commercial areas.

Structural funds

Money from Brussels aimed at regenerating the most deprived parts of the European Union. The funds can be used for a wide range of projects, including new businesses, infrastructure, training and job creation. Governments have to match the EU's investment to take full advantage of the money.

Supplementary Credit Approvals (SCA)

See Annual Capital Guideline.

Sustainable Development and Transport

Sustainable development can be defined as seeking to improve the quality of life for all citizens without prejudicing the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. In terms of transport, walking, cycling and public transport are seen as more sustainable alternatives to the private car because these use less energy, create less pollution, encourage healthy exercise, counter the negative community aspects of traffic and roads, and help reduce inequality in access and opportunity.

Sustrans

A civil engineering charity based in Bristol, currently co-ordinating and liaising with interested parties to develop the National Cycle Network and Safe Routes to School.

Super Showcase

The West Midlands Area Multi-Modal Study (2001) identified the need for a network of “Super Showcase” bus routes in the West Midlands by 2015. The study defined the concept of super-showcase as one that represented a significant improvement in provision approaching rapid transit standards. This would involve reallocation of road-space, where practicable, together with bus priority measures at junctions. Priority measures would need to be virtually continuous and specific measures would also include selective detection systems at signal-controlled junctions, bus gates and queue relocation measures. Such mechanisms would be aimed at providing journey times equivalent to 95% of car speeds at peak times

SVD

Selective Vehicle Detection.

T

TAPESTRY

Travel Awareness Publicity and Education Supporting a Sustainable Transport Strategy in Europe

TENs

Trans-European Networks.

TPI

Targeted Programme of Improvements

TPP

Transport Policies and Programme – an annual submission to government for transport grants that was superceded by the Local Transport Plan (LTP) from 1999.

TraC

Transport Research and Consultancy (University of North London)

Traffic Regulation Order (TRO)

An order made under the Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984, which prohibits, restricts or regulates the use of a highway, or any part of its width, by vehicular traffic or pedestrians.

Trans-European Networks (TENs)

Key communication corridors in Europe declared by the European Union as those that are the most important links between and through constituent countries. Linked to an investment fund to encourage improvements

Transport Supplementary Grant (TSG)

A grant paid annually by Central Government to local authorities towards approved eligible transport expenditure of a capital nature (see also Expenditure Eligible for TSG).

TravelWise

A sustained travel awareness campaign that seeks to change society's travel behaviour by making people more aware of the social costs of traffic congestion, particularly those that have an impact upon the environment and public health. By highlighting the health and cost benefits to the individual TravelWise encourages people to use their cars more carefully and to be more receptive to the idea of using alternative modes of transport such as bus, rail, walking or cycling. All the West Midlands Highway Authorities are members of this campaign.

Trunk Roads

A network of all purpose strategic routes of national importance for the movement of long distance traffic. They are 'A' class roads where the Secretary of State is the highway authority and the Highways Agency is responsible for maintenance.

TUBA

Transport User Benefit Assessment.

U

Unitary Development Plan (UDP)

The statutory, definitive land use plan, produced by a local Planning Authority, that sets the policy context and framework for decisions on the development of land within the Authority's area.

Urban Traffic Control (UTC)

A system of traffic signals, detectors and variable electronic signals linked to a computer programmed to achieve optimum traffic flow for a network.

V

VCGR

Value/Cost to Government Ratio.

Virgin Trains

The Train Operating Company running inter-city rail services from London to the West Midlands, the North West and Glasgow and cross-country services from the south and south west to the North of England in the West Midlands under franchise from SRA.

Vulnerable Users

Travellers more at risk of injury or danger than car users, specifically pedestrians, cyclists and disabled people.

W

West Coast Main Line (WCML)

The rail route from London Euston to Liverpool, Manchester and Glasgow via the West Midlands along two routes. One serves Coventry, Birmingham New Street and Wolverhampton and the other Rugby, Nuneaton, Lichfield, Stafford and Crewe.

West Midlands Area Multi-modal Study (WMAMMS)

A Government initiated study looking at the need for transport improvements across all modes (types of transport) and proposing improvements to cope with travel needs up to 2031. There was a requirement to consider solutions in terms of the national objectives of integration, economy, safety, accessibility and environment. The study looked at an area covering the metropolitan boroughs of Birmingham, Dudley, Sandwell, Solihull, Walsall and Wolverhampton as well as the surrounding area to the extent there was transport relationship.

West Midlands Region

The area covering the former West Midlands County and the shire counties of Herefordshire, Shropshire, Staffordshire, Warwickshire and Worcestershire, and all districts and new unitary authorities contained therein. The area is administered by the Government Office for the West Midlands.

WMLGA

West Midlands Local Government Association

WMLTP

West Midlands Local Transport Plan

WMAMMS

West Midlands Area Multi-modal Study.

WMPTA

West Midlands Passenger Transport Authority

WMPTE

West Midlands Passenger Transport Executive

Workplace Parking Levy

A proposal in the Integrated Government White Paper for local authorities to levy a charge on companies providing parking spaces for employees to raise local funds and discourage such provision. An alternative approach would be charging in congested areas.